A language is the main medium of communicating between the Computer systems and the most common are the programming languages. As we know a Computer only understands binary numbers that is 0 and 1 to perform various operations but the languages are developed for different types of work on a Computer. A language consists of all the instructions to make a request to the system for processing a task. From the first generation and now fourth generation of the Computers there were several programming languages used to communicate with the Computer. Here we will go in the detail of the Computer language and its types.
Computer Language Description:
A Computer language includes various languages that are used to communicate with a Computer machine. Some of the languages like programming language which is a set of codes or instructions used for communicating the machine. Machine code is also considered as a computer language that can be used for programming. And also HTML which is a computer language or a markup language but not a programming language. Similarly there are different types of languages developed for different types of work to be performed by communicating with the machine. But all the languages that are now available are categorized into two basic types of languages including Low-level language and High level language.
Low Level Language:
Low level languages are the machine codes in which the instructions are given in machine language in the form of 0 and 1 to a Computer system. It is mainly designed to operate and handle all the hardware and instructions set architecture of a Computer. The main function of the Low level language is to operate, manage and manipulate the hardware and system components. There are various programs and applications written in low level languages that are directly executable without any interpretation or translation. The most famous and the base of all programming languages “C” and “C++” are mostly used Low level languages till today. Low level language is also divided into two parts are Machine language and Assembly language.
- Machine Language is one of the low-level programming languages which is the first generation language developed for communicating with a Computer. It is written in machine code which represents 0 and 1 binary digits inside the Computer string which makes it easy to understand and perform the operations. As we know a Computer system can recognize electric signals so here 0 stands for turning off electric pulse and 1 stands for turning on electric pulse. It is very easy to understand by the Computer and also increases the processing speed.
The main advantage of using Machine language is that there is no need of a translator or interpreter to translate the code, as the Computer directly can understand. But there are some disadvantages also like you have to remember the operation codes, memory address every time you write a program and also hard to find errors in a written program. It is a machine dependent and can be used by a single type of Computer.
- Assembly Language is the second generation programming language that has almost similar structure and set of commands as Machine language. Instead of using numbers like in Machine languages here we use words or names in English forms and also symbols. The programs that have been written using words, names and symbols in assembly language are converted to machine language using an Assembler. Because a Computer only understands machine code languages that’s why we need an Assembler that can convert the Assembly level language to Machine language so the Computer gets the instruction and responds quickly.
The main disadvantage of this language is that it is written only for a single type of CPU and does not run on any other CPU. But its speed makes it the most used low level language till today which is used by many programmers.
High Level Language:
The high level languages are the most used and also more considered programming languages that helps a programmer to read, write and maintain. It is also the third generation language that is used and also running till now by many programmers. They are less independent to a particular type of Computer and also require a translator that can convert the high level language to machine language. The translator may be an interpreter and Compiler that helps to convert into binary code for a Computer to understand. There is various high level programming languages like C, FORTRAN or Pascal that are less independent and also enables the programmer to write a program.
The Compiler plays an important role on the Computer as it can convert to machine language and also checks for errors if any before executing. There are several high level languages that were used earlier and also now like COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, C, C++, PASCAL, LISP, Ada, Algol, Prolog and Java. It is user-friendly as the programs are written in English using words, symbols, characters, numbers that needs to be converted to machine code for processing.
Since these are some of the Computer languages which is unto third generation but there are also 4GL or fourth generation languages that are typical high level programming languages used for accessing databases using commands. And you will be even happier with the fifth generation language too that are used for artificial intelligence and neural networks for high professionals like scientist. But the above programming languages are very close to humans and used to write programs easily and convert to machine language for easy pickings for a Computer machine.