Microsoft Windows

Microsoft windows stands for ‘Microsoft-Wide Interactive Network Development for Office Work Solution.’ Microsoft windows is a series of graphical interface operating system developed, marked and sold by Microsoft. It enables you to work with a wide variety of programs on your computer, often simultaneously.


Windows is an operating system program that communicates your instructions to the actual computer hardware and displays the results. Windows is a rectangular area which provides an environment to run many programs. It is based on Graphical User Interface (GUI).

It consists of

Windows Explorer It is a tool that allows you to browse, view, copy and delete files. It acts as a file manager that provides detailed information about your files, folders and drives.

Active Window  It refers to the object that is being currently used or display on the desktop.

Up gradation It is the process of enhancing the features of any object. It changes or replaces the characteristics of any windows to any other advanced version of windows.

Versions of MS- Windows.

Windows NT (New Technology):

A version of Windows introduced in 1993 and made specifically for businesses offering better control over workstation capabilities to help network administrators.


  • It is based on High Level Language.
  • It is able to run on DOS, Windows 3 and Win 32 applications.
  • It has a 32-bit Windows applications.
  • It uses pre-emptive multitasking.
  • It provides higher stability and security.

Windows 95  

Windows 95 is a graphical user interface based operating system. It was released on 24th  August, 1995 by Microsoft.


  • It is a mixed of 16 –bit /32-bit Windows operating system.
  • It is consumer- oriented.
  • It supports Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating system.
  • It supports FAT32 file system, multi-display, Web TV and the Internet Explorer.

Windows 98

It was developed in 1998. This was produced in two main versions. The first Windows 98 version was plagued with programming errors but the Windows 98 Second Edition came out later was much better with many errors resolved.


  • It supports Internet Explorer 4. 01.
  • It has Intel 80486DX2/66 MHz or a compatible CPU with a Math coprocessor (Pentium processor recommended).
  • Windows 98 was the first operating system to use the Windows Driver Model (WDM).
  • It includes a FAT32 converter utility for converting FAT16 drives to FAT32 without formatting the partition.
  • It also supports many peripherals devices (MX,USB, DVD).

Windows ME (Millennium Edition)

An upgraded version from Windows 98, launched in 2000,but it has been historically plagued with programming errors which may be frustrating for home users.


  • It is designed for single CPU or SMP 32 –Bit Intel X86 computer.
  • It supports 8 or more CPU (the maximum 32 CPU).
  • The minimum internal storage is 64MB and maximum 4GB.
  • It introduced the Multilingual User Interface (MUI).

Windows XP (experience):

Windows XP is an OS produced  by Microsoft for use on personal computers. Microsoft released Windows XP on 25th October, 2001.

Some version of Windows XP are

  1. Windows XP Home edition is a version made for home users.
  2. Windows XP professional is made for business users.


  • It has various users with independent profiles.
  • It has 3.75 GB free space on the disk and that the total size of the disk is 19.5 GB.
  • At least 64 megabytes (MB) of RAM internet storage.
  • It provides 1.5 gigabytes (GB) of available space on the hard disk.
  • It includes video adapter and monitor with Support VGA(800* 600)or higher resolution.
  • It supports sound card, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM drive, speakers or headphones.

Windows Vista:

It is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computer, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs. It was released worldwide on 30th,January, 2007.


It can be installed Pentium 4, higher, 512MB RAM, 32 MB video card and 40GB hard disk.

It enhanced the features of visual style.

Windows 7:

Windows 7 is an OS released by Microsoft on 22nd July, 2009. It is an upgrade of Windows XP and Vista. It does not include some standard applications like Windows Movie Maker Windows Mail, etc


  • It supports 64-Bit processor.
  • It provides touch, speech, handwriting recognition.
  • It supports a playback of media in MP4, MOV.
  • It includes Windows Bio-metric Framework.
  • It provides multiple firewall.

Windows 8

It is a part of Windows NT family as personal OS developed by Microsoft and released on 1st August, 2012.


  • It is a 64-bit logical CPU.
  • It supports 64 TB Dynamic Virtual Disk.
  • It provides 3D Graphic supports and Internet Explorer-10.
  • It enhanced feature of NTML-5 is assumed.
  • It is based on Microsoft’s ‘Metro design language’.
  • It supports new emerging technology like USB3.0, cloud computing.


  • The term Windows was introduced by Microsoft company in1983.
  • Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) It provides a compare documents combining information from several different application programs such as graphs, charts, music. video. clipart etc.
  • INI is used to stores all the setting of windows.
  • To restart the computer, Ctrl+ Alt+ Del key is used.
  • To shut down the computer , we need to click start and then select shut down key.
  • Windows 8.1 is the updated version of Windows 8.

Structure of Windows.


When we turn on the computer then the first screen, which will be display on the computer is known as desktop.

The background image of desktop is called as wallpaper. A small arrow or blinking symbol, moving on the desktop, is called  as  cursor.

Desktop contains start menu, task bar, icons, gadgets, etc. Some important components of desktop are organised as


A small image of a program, shown on the desktop with program name is known as icon. Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs and other items. Icons contain the program that is selected.

Users can open these programs by double click on the icons. If you move an icon on your desktop, this is called ‘dragging’ and after releasing it, it will be called ‘dropping’.

Some of the icons displayed on desktop are as follows

  1. My computer It is the most important icon on the desktop, which contains icons of document folders, hard disk’s partition, each removable disk drive. E.g., floppy disk, CD, DVD etc. It also allows the users to access drives, printers, removable  disk or other system application. It is the main part of our windows where all the programs and software backup is stored.
  2. Recycle Bin It is also a form of icon on the desktop, which contains deleted file, folders or shortcuts. If we delete a file or folder then it goes to recycle bin . From recycle bin, we can restore the deleted file or folders on proper place. It is like a dustbin of the computer.

Once the recycle bin is empty then we won’t be able to restore those files and folder again.

  1. Shortcut It is an icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
  2. My Document This folder contains all your files which you have created and saved in it. This folder contains all types of file format word processor, spreadsheet, PowerPoint, image, etc.

It can open in three ways

  • By clicking on start button and then select My Document.
  • By clicking on My Computer and then select My Document.
  • By creating shortcut on desktop.
  1. My Network Places It consists of all network connections, which make possible to connect the computer from internet.

Task Bar

Initially, the long horizontal box at the bottom of our desktop is known as task bar. When  we open a program or any window, then the button of that program  will be displayed on the task bar.

Generally, task bar consists of three parts

  1. Start Button When we click on the start button then the start menu will appear.
  2. Middle Section It contains the button of programs or documents which are currently being used by the user.
  3. Notification Area It is on the right end of the task bar, consists of clock – date and time, icons of certain programs, computer setting, sound and icons of removable disk i.e., pen drive.

Start Menu

The start menu is the main gateway of our computer’s program such as file, folder and setting. Start menu also contains most recently opened program.

Start menu have following options

  1. Programs It contains a list of installed programs. When we installed any software it automatically shows in this menu.
  2. Favourites It is a collection of book marked web pages.
  3. Documents It shows a list of most recently opened documents.
  4. Setting It includes control panel, printers, taskbar, etc.
  5. Find It searches for specific files or folders.
  6. Log off Provide a password to protect from unauthorised access.
  7. Turn Off (Shut down) To shut down or restart the system.
  • End menu is also access from start menu.

Menu Bar

Each window contains its own menu which performs specific actions when they have been selected.

The menu bar consists of several options

  1. File Menu like new, open, close, save, save as, send and print, etc.
  2. Edit Menu like undo, cut, copy, paste, clear, etc.
  3. View Menu consists of normal, toolbar, print layout, etc
  4. Insert Menu contains options like header, footer, etc.
  5. Help Menu for tutorials or helpful information’s.


Windows contains mini-programs called gadgets which offer information at a glance and provide  easy access to frequently used tools. Some of the gadgets that come in Windows 7 are calendar, clock, weather, feed headlines, slide show and picture puzzle.

Dialogue Box

When we perform certain operation on your document and click on the close button without save your document then dialogue box will appear on the screen. Generally, dialogue box contains message, close button, yes button, no button and cancel button. It is mainly used to suggest that what to do next.

The three buttons are associated with most windows opened in your operating systems at the top right corner. They are as follows

Close Button

At the right edge of the title bar. There is a square containing a (X) called the close button. It helps to terminate the running program.


It reduces to window to a button on the task bar. It helps to shrink the window.


It  enlarges the window to occupy the whole desktop. It expand the size of window fit to the desktop.

The three buttons are associated with most windows opened in your operating system at the top right corner. They are as follows.

Main Programs Inside the Windows

1. Notepad

It is a text editor program. It is most commonly used for the edit or view text files. The file format of notepad files is . txt (text document).

To open

Click on start menu > All programs > Accessories . Notepad.

2. WordPad

It is an another text editor program including some few features such as complex formatting, pictures, etc. The extension of WordPad file is . rtf (rich text format).

To open

Click on start menu > All programs > Accessories > WordPad

3. Paint

It is a drawing program, used to create drawing or edit digital pictures (images). The extension of paint file is . pug (pug image).

To open

Click on start menu > All programs > Accessories > Paint

4. Calculator

It performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc

To open:

Click on start menu > All programs > Accessories > Calculator

Media Player:

Windows media player is an easy-to- use interface to play digital media files, organise digital media collection, burn CDs, etc.

To open:

Click on start menu > All programs > Windows media player


Windows have some games like Chess titans, Hearts,  Freecell,  Mahjong titans, purble place, Solitaire, Spider solitaire, etc.

To open:

Click on start menu > All programs > Games.

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